The Birds & The Bees

STIs

STI TYPES: Insects, Protozoa, Bacteria, Viruses

Insects Are More of an Annoyance than a Danger

Pubic lice (“crabs”) are very small dark or tan-colored flat insects with clawlike legs that grasp pubic hair and gorge on human blood.

Scabies is an infestation of parasitic mites that can be transmitted both sexually and nonsexually.

Syphilis is a bacterial infection that can have 3 stages of infection. Curable with antibiotics.

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that can be asymptomatic (no symptoms) and is curable with antibiotics.

Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that can cause infertility and be asymptomatic. This is curable with antibiotics but a multi- drug resistant form is now prevalent.

Genital Herpes Is a Lifelong but Not Life-Threatening Infection

Herpes simplex 1 causes oral herpes in the form of fever blisters or cold sores on the lips or inside the mouth. Herpes simplex 2 causes genital herpes.  Both are caused by viruses. Herpes outbreaks commonly occur on the shaft of the penis or on the vulva

Human Papillomaviruses Can Cause Genital Warts—and Cancer

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6 and 11 cause genital warts, which infect the urogenital tract or the skin near the genitalia and types 16 and 18 are linked as a cause of cervical cancer.

An estimated 50–75% of sexually active men and women acquire an HPV infection at some point during their lives.

Warts can be removed by surgery, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or the application of podophyllin, but they may recur. The HPV vaccine Gardasil is now available to girls and young women. To be effective, this vaccine must be administered before HPV infection has occurred.

Hepatitis Viruses Can Be Sexually Transmitted

Viruses that attack the liver are called hepatitis viruses.

Hepatitis B virus is transmitted sexually

Symptoms include jaundice, fever, and swelling of the liver. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated (but not cured).

- Hepatitis B Vaccine is available.

Hepatitis A is transmitted sexually as well as through the fecal–oral route.

It does not progress to a chronic state. 

 - Hepatitis A vaccine is available.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Is Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

AIDS is caused by HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, which exists in the body fluids of an infected person.

The four modes of transmission are:

  1.   Vaginal, oral and anal sexual intercourse,
  2. transfusion of contaminated blood,
  3. the sharing of injection needles,
  4. and passage of the virus from an infected mother to her fetus or infant.

 

 

HIV is a retrovirus.

More than half of all new infections are the result of sex between men.

AIDS Is Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Anti-AIDS drugs reduce symptoms and improve life expectancy- Medication is expensive



Physical Methods Block Sperm Transport and Pathogens

Barrier methods such as male and female condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps block sperm from entering the cervix.

Spermicides are often used in conjunction with these barrier methods.

- Chemical that kills the sperm, often nonoxynol-9

- Not for use during anal sex, some have reactions

Female condoms put the condom responsibility

- Female condoms are relatively intrusive.

- Made from polyurethane

Male condoms come in a variety of types, textures, sizes, and even flavors

BARRIER METHODS ARE THE ONLY BIRTH CONTROL THAT ALSO PROTECT FROM STIs

Intrauterine devices, or IUDs, offer their own advantages and disadvantages.

- Expensive to get inserted, but lasts long enough to cost less in the long term than the pill.

- Easily reversible, highly effective

- Can be used as emergency contraception

- Hormonal (Mirena) and non-hormonal (Paraguard Copper T) versions available.

Hormones Can Be Administered by Non-Oral Routes

Depo-Provera is administered by injection and lasts three months.

Transdermal patches last one week.

Vaginal rings last three weeks.

Implants are reliable but costly.

 

Sources:

V., & H. (2012, October 12). Human Sexuality is Complicated... Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXAoG8vAyzI

Crashcourse. (2014, August 18). Let's Talk About Sex: Crash Course Psychology #27. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qymp_VaFo9M

May, E. (2015, May 12). Tea Consent. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://youtu.be/oQbei5JGiT8

Crashcourse. (2015, November 16). Reproductive System, part 3 - Sex & Fertilization: Crash Course A&P #42. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUdAEGXLO-8&t=23s

Crashcourse. (2017, October 30). Sex & Sexuality: Crash Course Sociology #31. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kqt-_ILgv5c

Crashcourse. (2015, November 09). Reproductive System, part 2 - Male Reproductive System: Crash Course A&P 41. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XQcnO4iX_U

Osmosis. (2017, May 10). Pregnancy - physiology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HdvKD5NnGA

Osmosis. (2017, September 28). Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el7f6eqT0gg

Osmosis. (2016, April 18). HIV & AIDS - signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5g1ijpBI6Dk

Osmosis. (2017, January 17). Herpes (oral & genital) - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOUnXeqNyMs

Ketchum, H. (2015, January 10). Human Physiology - Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v22CjFYizi0

Osmosis. (2017, January 10). Stages of labor - physiology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1EXJYKtxHs

Osmosis. (2016, November 23). Postpartum hemorrhage - causes, symptoms, treatment, pathology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SEQPKTceWp4&list=PLY33uf2n4e6Ma3wsLswrXU_LwkAuxB9xy

Osmosis. (2017, January 03). Preeclampsia & eclampsia - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RB5s85xDshA&list=PLY33uf2n4e6Ma3wsLswrXU_LwkAuxB9xy&index=2

Osmosis. (2017, September 11). Premature ovarian failure - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxZBn88iUlM

Osmosis. (2017, March 29). Urinary incontinence - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsLBApSlPMo

STD and STD Symptoms. (2015, April 02). Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XcPCY83FIvk

The Largest Confidential Herpes & STD. (n.d.). Retrieved December 03, 2017, from http://www.positivesingles.com/

ASN Instructor. (2015, March 23). How can I tell if I have an STI? Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfCtbSMuoSk

ASN Instructor. (2015, January 28). Sexually Transmitted Disease. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_An8wqzNRM

Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine

Sociology by John J. Macionis, 15th edition (2014) The Williams Institute: How Many People are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender?

https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.ed...

Fausto-Sterling, Ann. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality (2000)

MEDSimplified, Z. (2017, September 07). Viral Hepatitis Made Simple - Pathology , Clinical features & Classifications. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6XfSQ_zQgQ

Bolin, P. W. (2016, November 17). Contraception - CRASH! Medical Review Series. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecM4VdoWZMM

Bolin, P. W. (2017, September 28). Infertility - CRASH! Medical Review Series. Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CTTkXLFTywU







Pregnancy

One year of Unprotected sex = 85% chance of making life

For fertile couples who engage in sex without contraception several times a week, there is a 93% chance of pregnancy within one year.

Labor Has Three Stages

The first stage of labor consists of uterine contractions that open the cervix and push the fetus down into the pelvis.

The second stage is delivery of the baby, aided by uterine contractions and bearing down.

The third stage is delivery of the placenta.

Breast-Feeding Is the Preferred Method of Nourishing the Infant

Lactation is influenced by the hormones prolactin and oxytocin.

Sexual Disorders:

What is premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, and premature ejaculation?

Lack of Desire for Sex Is Not Necessarily a Problem

Lack of interest in sex, or hypoactive sexual desire disorder, is not a problem unless it causes distress or interferes with a person’s sexual relationships.

Among people in the 18–59 age range, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 6 men report a lack of interest in sex.

Low sexual desire is LESS common in men than women.

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder in men can be treated with testosterone. Estrogen or androgen treatment and sex therapy may restore sexual desire in women.

Dyspareunia is pain during sex.




Anatomy

Female Anatomy

The Brain Also Differentiates Sexually; there are higher levels of androgens in males than in females during development which accoujt for these differences
Typical female (46,XX) or male (46,XY)

Gender and sex are related but different. Gender can be described as the collection of psychological traits that differ between males and females. What one identifies themselves as is their gender identity. When there is unhappiness between sex and gender it is called gender dysphoria. This can be fixed with sex-reassignment surgery, but not every transsexualwants this. The terms are:
Terms: F-to-M trans (transmen).
M-to-F trans (transwomen).
Transvestism- Crossdressing. Dress up for sexual pleasure.

External Female Genitalia is the Vulva, which refers to the entire external genital area in a woman.
The fatty tissue covered with skin and pubic hair is the Mons Veneris. The mons acts as a cushion during sex. Some women shave their pubic hair but it has it's uses. For instance, pubic hair helps to vaporize odors.
The vaginal opening is called the introitis. This varies in appearance among girls and women. Newborn girls usually have an introitis covered with a thin membrane of skin called the hymen, which is related to virginity.
The urethral opening is between the introitis and the clitoris, and is as it sounds; the passageway for excretion of urine.
The labia majora (outer lips) are two folds of skin that extend down from the mons on either side of the vulva. These can be big or small, varying in size depending on the woman.
The labia minora (inner lips) are thin folds of hairless skin between the two labia majora meeting at the front to form the clitoral hood and enclose the vestibule space. Within the vestibule are the clitoris, urethral opening, and vaginal opening.
The clitoris is a complex organ who's only function is sexual arousal and stimulation. It consists of a glans, shaft, and two corpora cavernosa. The crura and vestibular bulbs are internal portions of the clitoris.
Grafenberg Spot (G-spot) is important for orgasm as well. It is a dime to quarter sized spot in the lower third of anterior vaginal wall (2-3 inches up), just past the pubic bone. Stimulation can lead to orgasm.

FERTILIZATION

Fertilization happens in the Fallopian Tubes/Oviducts. These form a path from the ovaries to the uterus. The oviducts are lined with Cilia (hair-like structures) and each oviduct ends in flared openings(fimbria), which propel ova down toward the uterus.

Female Puberty
The female body changes during puberty which is the biological transition to sexual maturity. It typically starts around the age of 11 or 12 when ovulation begins. During puberty, the pelvis widens, pubic hair grows, and eventually you start getting periods.

PERIODS

Main processes of the menstrual cycle where the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) sheds a layer each month fertilization doesn't occur.
Menstrual problems include cramps, dysmenorrhea, and PMS, which are common and treatable.
• Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) – mood, behavioral, somatic, and cognitive symptoms; medication (SSRIs) and lifestyle changes provide relief.
• Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) has physical and psychological aspects.

Menopause

A woman’s final menstrual period is called menopause. Climacteric – period of decreased estrogen production and menstruation stops typically at 40-58 years, with an average of 51 years. There are usually irregular cycles rather than a sudden stop. During this stage sexual glands decrease in size, secondary sex characteristics change, there are hormonal changes (hot flashes, headaches, sleep disturbances), and there are sexual complaints (vaginal dryness, pain, etc)

The Breasts Have Both Erotic and Reproductive Significance.
Each breast consists of a nipple, areola, 15–20 lobes subdivided into lobules with milk-producing alveoli, and lactiferous sinuses.Nipples can harden in response to sexual arousal, stimulation, and cold and generally female nipples harden during orgasm.

Breast Cancer

1 in 8 women may get breast cancer during her life. Many factors affect breast cancer risk including genes, age, and reproductive history. One should look into family history. Mortality of this cancer can be reduced with early detection and treatment. Treatment is dependent on diagnostic findings as well as the woman’s choice.
Some breast cancer survivors desire to reconstruct their breast following mastectomy (removal of the breast tissue) while others do not. Many breast cancer survivors resume an active sex life following treatment.



Male Anatomy

The External Male Genitalia Are the Penis and Scrotum
The penis has 3 functions; erotic, reproductive, and urinary. An uncircumcised penis contains a shaft, glans, and foreskin.
Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin, or prepuce.
Smegma (Combination of dead skin cells, sweat and oil glands) collects under the ridge of the glans which should be cleaned regularly.

The shaft of the penis contains three erectile structures: a pair of corpora cavernosa and a single corpus spongiosum. The corpus spongiosum extends from the shaft and extends to fill in the glans of the penis.
The scrotum contains the two testicles which are lightly covered in hair. The scrotum (aka the ball sack) functions to keep the testicles 3°C cooler than the body’s temperature in order to keep sperm viable. The cremaster muscle moves the scrotum closer to or farther from the body (protects) and possesses numerous sweat glands to regulate temperature. It is very painful to be hit here.
The Testicles Produce Sperm and Sex Hormones. There are two egg-shaped glands in the scrotum, typically 2 inches long, 1 inch diameter. One (typically the left) usually hangs a bit lower than the other to allow sliding past rather than compression. There are 2 primary functions of the testicles: testosterone production and spermatogenesis. To put it simply, the testes secrete hormones and manufacture sperm. Seminiferous tubules are the site of spermatogenesis (sperm manufacturing plant) and dominate the structure of the testes. Each sperm consists of a head and a tail. Sperm is only a small 1% of semen.
The vas deferens is an 18-inch tube that carries sperm from the testicles, combines fluids from other glands, and propels the sperm
The seminal vesicles, which are next to the ampulla of the vas deferens, have many functions. They secrete a nutritional bath for traveling sperm, 60-70% of the ejaculate volume, join the vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct that passes into the prostate and then forms the urethra
The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland beneath the bladder that secretes a fluid that neutralizes the acidity of the vagina that would be lethal to sperm; 25-30% of the ejaculate’s volume
The cowper’s (bulbourethral) glands are 2 pea-sized glands next to the urethra, under the prostate. They contribute fluid that cleans the urethra of lethal acidic urine and comprises the majority of the pre-ejaculatory fluid
Spermatogenesis
Seminiferous tubules produce and store sperm.Sertoli cells (in the tubules) provide nutrition for the development of sperm
This process begins with spermatogonium on the outer wall of the tubules; they move toward the center during development as primary spermatocytes, then divide to form secondary spermatocytes, and divide again into spermatids

Disorders of the Prostate Gland
• Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
• Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) refers to constriction of the urethra due to noncancerous enlargement of the prostate.
• Makes it hard to urinate, frequency of urination increases.
• Prostate cancer generally shares many of the same symptoms as BPH.
• Treatments: “watchful waiting”, radical prostatectomy, radiation, cryosurgery, drugs that attack cancerous cells
A rectal exam by a physician is used most often to diagnose prostate cancer in men.
Andropause: Testosterone levels decrease about 1% per year after 40 years of age, male menopause.



“Human Physiology” is a free online course on Janux that is open to anyone. Learn more at http://janux.ou.edu. Janux courses are freely available or may be taken for college credit by enrolled OU students. Dr. Heather R. Ketchum is an Associate Professor of Biology. Video produced by NextThought (http://nextthought.com). Copyright © 2000-2014 The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, All Rights Reserved.

Consent

Hank explains the four phases of the human sexual response, how a sperm finds and fertilizes an egg, creating a zygote, and how different types of contraception work to prevent that from happening.



Zoophiles are sexually fixated on animals. According to Kinsey’s data, approximately 8% of men and 4% of women have had at least one sexual contact with an animal.

“Paraphilia” Is the Psychiatric Term for Problematic Sexual Desire or Behavior

Social attitudes strongly color what is considered sexually normal and what is considered abnormal.

“Paraphilia” Is the Psychiatric Term for Problematic Sexual Desire or Behavior

The paraphilias that come to medical or legal attention most often are those that involve victims. Paraphilias are often exaggerations or extensions of common sexual desires or behaviors.     Far more men than women have paraphilias.

Rape is when one person wants and pursues a sexual act on, to or inside another person who does not want to participate, and who does not fully and freely consent to take part in that act.

Rape or forcible rape is penetration of the vagina, anus, or mouth by the penis when performed by force or the threat of force.

Sexual assault is any sexual act performed by force or the threat of force.

Sexual Harassment Occurs in Many Environments

The experience of sexual harassment begins in childhood and accelerates at puberty.

- Cat calls, called “gay” or “fag”, called “slut” or “whore”

Teachers and school officials generally show a lack of concern.

- Bullying, name calling, violence, and suicide.

BDSM is consensual act between two people, unlike rape or sexual violence.

BDSM = B- Bondage D- Dominance S- Submission/Sadism  M- Masochism

Contraception



Gender & Sexuality

The Brain Also Differentiates Sexually

The Brain Also Differentiates Sexually; there are higher levels of androgens in males than in females during development which account for these differences
Typical female (46,XX) or male (46,XY)

Gender and sex are related but different. Gender can be described as the collection of psychological traits that differ between males and females. What one identifies themselves as is their gender identity. When there is unhappiness between sex and gender it is called gender dysphoria. This can be fixed with sex-reassignment surgery, but not every transsexualwants this. The terms are:
Terms: F-to-M trans (transmen).
M-to-F trans (transwomen).
Transvestism- Crossdressing. Dress up for sexual pleasure.